Vulcan

Zero Carbon Lithium™

We exist to decarbonise the carbon production footprint of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles by producing a world-first lithium hydroxide monohydrate chemical product with zero carbon footprint, from our geothermal lithium brine project in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

Lithium chemicals are a critical feedstock for manufacturing the batteries in electric vehicles. To fully electrify our cars with lithium-ion batteries, we need a lot of lithium.

The current main pathway for producing and refining lithium, from hard-rock mines, would emit approximately 1.05 billion tonnes of CO2 to produce the quantity of lithium required to electrify all the world’s passenger vehicles, if the industry went down this path.

Unlike current lithium extraction projects, our Zero Carbon Lithium™ business will incur virtually zero disruption to communities or the environment. This means no large open pit mines, no large, unsightly and water-hungry evaporation ponds, or process plants running on fossil fuels.

See the difference below.

Hard Rock Mining

Open pit hard rock mines for lithium scar the landscape. Once you mine it, the rock has to be roasted with fossil fuels to produce lithium hydroxide. This is very CO2-intensive.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through hard rock mining requires approximately:

00000

CO2 Emitted (kg)

000

Water Used (m3)

000

Land Occupation (m2)

0000

Cost (per tonne)

Evaporation Ponds

Lithium extraction from brines in South America evaporates large quantities of water in the second driest place on earth. This stresses the environment and local indigenous communities.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through evaporation ponds requires:

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CO2 Emitted (kg)

000

Water Used (m3)

0000

Land Occupation (m2)

0000

Cost (per tonne)

*Minviro Life Cycle Analysis, 2020

Zero Carbon Lithium™

Draws on naturally occurring, renewable geothermal energy to power the lithium extraction process and create a renewable energy by-product. This uses no fossil fuels, requires very little water and has a tiny land footprint.

*One tonne of lithium hydroxide produced through our process requires:

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CO2 Emitted (kg)

00

Water Used (m3)

0

Land Occupation (m2)

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Cost (per tonne)

Peerless environmental credentials

VULCAN’S RENEWABLE ENERGY & Zero Carbon Lithium™ PROJECT

Through wells into the deep sub-surface, hot, lithium-rich brine from our project area is pumped to the surface.

  1. We will use renewable heat derived from our geothermal brine to drive the lithium extraction process, with no fossil fuel consumption.
  2. We will produce a surplus of renewable energy, decarbonising the grid.
  3. We will produce a unique, premium, battery-quality hydroxide product for EVs, zero carbon footprint.
  4. The spent brine then gets re-injected in a closed-loop cycle.

OUR PROPRIETARY PROCESS

We are protecting the intellectual property surrounding Vulcan’s unique process in a number of ways:

  • German Utility Patent Application
  • International Patent Application

PROJECT STRUCTURE: DUAL PURPOSE RENEWABLE PROJECT

Energy Business: Electricity & Heat, Lithium Business: Zero Carbon Lithium™

Potential for Very Low OPEX Operation

Low-cost South American brine and Australian/Chinese mineral conversion vs Vulcan’s process

Potential for Very Low OPEX Operation

Lithium Hydroxide cost curve (2025, US$/t)

Project Economics: CO2 Emissions vs OPEX

Carbon intensity versus production cost of lithium operations, future average

Vulcan to Offset CO2 Penalties for Automakers

Average Battery Pack: 50KWh, Average LCE per KWh: 0.9kg, Average LCE consumption per EV: 45kg,
Vulcan: -5.3t of CO2 per ton of LiOH,
Average Hard Rock operation with Chinese Converter: 15t of CO2 per ton of LiOH

Robust Project Financials

The EU has set the challenge to industry to decarbonise the production of batteries and EVs, including raw materials. Vulcan is proud to be a first mover and peerless leader in meeting this challenge with our Zero Carbon Lithium™ business.

Vulcan CEO and founder Dr. Francis Wedin